Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering 2023-09-30T06:13:49+00:00 Dr. Hayder Abdulkareem Aljandeel [email protected] Open Journal Systems <p>The Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering is a quarterly peer-reviewed scientific journal that was established in 2000 by the College of Engineering / University of Baghdad. The Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering receives citations in the category of Chemical /Petroleum Engineering and relevant subjects.</p> Synthesis, Characterizations, and Recent Applications of the Silica-based Mobil Composition of Mesoporous Material: A Review 2023-02-21T17:27:48+00:00 Badoor M. Kurji [email protected] Iqbal M. Mujtaba [email protected] Ammar S. Abbas [email protected] <p>Silica-based mesoporous materials are a class of porous materials with unique characteristics such as ordered pore structure, large surface area, and large pore volume. This review covers the different types of porous material (zeolite and mesoporous) and the physical properties of mesoporous materials that make them valuable in industry. Mesoporous materials can be divided into two groups: silica-based mesoporous materials and non-silica-based mesoporous materials. The most well-known family of silica-based mesoporous materials is the Mesoporous Molecular Sieves family, which attracts attention because of its beneficial properties. The family includes three members that are differentiated based on their pore arrangement. In this review, the major applications of the Mobil Mesoporous Molecular Sieves family, such as catalysts, adsorbents, and drug delivery agents, have been surveyed. Furthermore, the synthesis of the Mesoporous Molecular Sieves materials, the silica sources, the importance of templates, and the mechanisms of the synthesis are discussed herein. Members of this material family are characterized by many physicochemical properties that are closely related to their high silica content, crystalline structure, and pore arrangement. Commonly, the members of this family have large surface areas, high pore volumes, small pore sizes, and narrow and uniform particle size distributions. These properties enable numerous industrial applications and opportunities for scientific studies to further develop existing materials or manufacture new ones.</p> 2023-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering Performance of Electro-Fenton Process for Phenol Degradation Using Nickel Foam as a Cathode 2023-02-26T14:47:13+00:00 Hind H. Thwaini [email protected] Rasha H. Salman [email protected] Wameath S. Abdul-Majeed [email protected] <p>Toxic substances have been released into water supplies in recent decades because of fast industrialization and population growth. Fenton electrochemical process has been addressed to treat wastewater which is very popular because of its high efficiency and straightforward design. One of the advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) is electro-Fenton (EF) process, and electrode material significantly affects its performance. Nickel foam was chosen as the source of electro-generated hydrogen peroxide (H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>) due to its good characteristics. In the present study, the main goals were to explore the effects of operation parameters (FeSO<sub>4</sub> concentration, current density, and electrolysis time) on the catalytic performance that was optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). According to the results, nickel foam made an excellent choice as cathode material. The pH value was adjusted at 3 and the airflow at 10 L/h for all experiments. It was found that the optimal conditions were current density of 4.23 mA/cm<sup>2</sup>, Fe<sup>2+ </sup>dosage of 0.1 mM, and time of 5 h to obtain the removal rates of phenol and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 81.335% and 79.1%, respectively. The results indicated that time had the highest effect on the phenol and COD removal efficiencies, while the impact of current density was the lowest. The high R<sup>2</sup> value of the model equation (98.03%) confirmed its suitability.</p> 2023-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering Preparation and Characterization of a Hierarchically Porous Zeolite-Carbon Composite from Economical Materials and Green Method 2023-07-03T14:10:10+00:00 Nargis H. Ibrahim [email protected] Sama M. Al-Jubouri [email protected] Abdullatif Alfutimie [email protected] <p>A hierarchically porous structured zeolite composite was synthesized from NaX zeolite supported on carbonaceous porous material produced by thermal treatment for plum stones which is an agro-waste. This kind of inorganic-organic composite has an improved performance because bulky molecules can easily access the micropores due to the short diffusion path to the active sites which means a higher diffusion rate. The composite was prepared using a green synthesis method, including an eco-friendly polymer to attach NaX zeolite on the carbon surface by phase inversion. The synthesized composite was characterized using X-ray diffraction spectrometry, Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, N<sub>2</sub>-adsorption/desorption isotherm, and point of zero charges. The results showed that the composite had a surface area of 208.463 m<sup>2</sup>/g, a pore volume of 0.122 cm<sup>3</sup>/g, distinct morphology, and functional groups. Also, its pH<sub>pzc</sub> was 6.9 above which its surface has a positive charge and below 6.9 it is charged negatively. This property determines the composite sorption property in the removal of pollutants from wastewater.</p> 2023-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering 2D and 3D Modeling of Rock Mechanical Properties of Khasib Formation in East Baghdad Oil Field 2023-01-01T07:44:32+00:00 Hayder Steer [email protected] Farqad Hadi [email protected] Abdulaziz Ellafi [email protected] <p>Knowing the distribution of the mechanical rock properties and the far field stresses for the field of interest is an important task for many applications concerning reservoir geomechanics, including wellbore instability analysis, hydraulic fracturing, sand production, reservoir compaction, and subsidence. A major challenge with determining the rock's mechanical properties is that they cannot be directly measured at the borehole. Furthermore, the recovered carbonate core samples for performing measurements are limited and they provide discrete data for specific depths.</p> <p> The purpose of this study is to build 2D and 3D geomechanical models of the Khasib reservoir in the East Baghdad oil field/ Central area. TECHLOG.2015.3 software was used to build the 1D-MEM while Petrel E&amp;P 2018.2 software was used to build the 3D distributions of rock mechanical properties. The Khasib formation has nine units (from K1 to K9). The current results support the evidence that the horizontal stresses are somewhat similar for all layers in the vertical case, but their distribution varies horizontally due to the changes in pore pressures. The pore pressure increases vertically, but its distribution within one layer is different due to the production from different wells. Elastic and strength characteristics of rock, including Young modulus, Poisson ratio, and unconfined compressive strength (UCS), have the same behavior, the highest value of the parameters appeared in the surface layer (K1). This layer is more stiff than other layers that have high porosities and high permeability. The internal friction angle for all formations ranges between 38<sup>o</sup>-40<sup>o</sup>, which gives a good harmonization with the limestone friction angle. The 3D distribution of the rock's mechanical properties revealed the carbonate heterogeneity because of its marine depositional environment and complex diagenetic processes. The findings of this study can be used for future geomechanical applications in the East Baghdad oil field including wellbore stability analysis, fault reactivation, and CO<sub>2</sub> sequestration.</p> 2023-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering Optimization of Gas Lifting Design in Mishrif Formation of Halfaya Oil Field 2022-11-30T14:10:33+00:00 Safwan Riyadh Ahmed [email protected] Dhifaf Jaafar Sadeq [email protected] Hisham Ben Mahmud [email protected] <p>The optimization of artificial gas lift techniques plays a crucial role in the advancement of oil field development. This study focuses on investigating the impact of gas lift design and optimization on production outcomes within the Mishrif formation of the Halfaya oil field. A comprehensive production network nodal analysis model was formulated using a PIPESIM Optimizer-based Genetic Algorithm and meticulously calibrated utilizing field-collected data from a network comprising seven wells. This well group encompasses three directional wells currently employing gas lift and four naturally producing vertical wells. To augment productivity and optimize network performance, a novel gas lift design strategy was proposed. The optimization of gas allocation was executed to maximize oil production rates while minimizing the injected gas volume, thus achieving optimal oil production levels at the most effective gas injection volume for the designated network. The utilization of the PIPESIM Optimizer, founded on genetic algorithm principles, facilitated the attainment of these optimal parameters. The culmination of this study yielded an optimal oil production rate of 18,814 STB/d, accompanied by a gas lift injection rate of 7.56 MMscf/d. This research underscores the significance of strategic gas lift design and optimization in enhancing oil recovery and operational efficiency in complex reservoir systems like the Mishrif formation within the Halfaya oil field.</p> 2023-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering Petrophysical Analysis Based on Well Logging Data for Tight Carbonate Reservoir: The SADI Formation Case in Halfaya Oil Field 2022-11-14T16:14:06+00:00 Safiyya A. Jassam [email protected] Omer AL-Fatlawi [email protected] Celal Hakan Canbaz [email protected] <p>Carbonate reservoirs are an essential source of hydrocarbons worldwide, and their petrophysical properties play a crucial role in hydrocarbon production. Carbonate reservoirs' most critical petrophysical properties are porosity, permeability, and water saturation. A tight reservoir refers to a reservoir with low porosity and permeability, which means it is difficult for fluids to move from one side to another. This study's primary goal is to evaluate reservoir properties and lithological identification of the SADI Formation in the Halfaya oil field. It is considered one of Iraq's most significant oilfields, 35 km south of Amarah. The Sadi formation consists of four units: A, B1, B2, and B3. Sadi A was excluded as it was not filled with hydrocarbons. The structural and petrophysical models were built based on data gathered from five oil wells. The data from the available well logs, including RHOB, NPHI, SONIC, Gamma-ray, Caliper, and resistivity logs, was used to calculate the petrophysical properties. These logs were analyzed and corrected for environmental factors using IP V3.5 software. where the average formation water resistivity (R<sub>w</sub> = 0.04), average mud filtrate resistivity (R<sub>mf</sub> = 0.06), and Archie's parameters (m = 2, n = 1.9, and a = 1) were determined. The well-log data values calculated the porosity, permeability, water saturation, and net-to-gross thickness ratio (N/G).</p> 2023-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering Desulphurization of Simulated Oil Using SAPO-11 with CNT's as Adsorbent: A Kinetic Study 2023-01-29T17:28:42+00:00 Gaith K. Jabaar [email protected] Hayder A. Al-Jendeel [email protected] Yasir Ali Alsheikh [email protected] <p>In this study, sulfur was removed from imitation oil using oxidative desulfurization process. Silicoaluminophosphate (SAPO-11) was prepared using the hydrothermal method with a concentration of carbon nanotubes (CNT) of 0% and 7.5% at 190 °C crystallization temperature. The final molar composition of the as-prepared SAPO-11 was Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>: 0.93P<sup>2</sup>O<sup>5</sup>: 0.414SiO<sup>2</sup>. 4% MO/SAPO-11 was prepared using impregnation methods. The produced SAPO-11 was described using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (N<sup>2</sup> adsorption–desorption isotherms). It was found that the addition of CNT increased the crystallinity of SAPO-11. The results showed that the surface area of SAPO-11 containing 7.5% CNT was 179.54 m<sup>2</sup>/g, and the pore volume was 0.317 cm<sup>3</sup>/g. However, the surface area of SAPO-11 containing 0% CNT was 125.311 m<sup>2</sup>/g, and pore volume was 0.275 cm<sup>3</sup>/g, while nanoparticles with an average particle diameter of 24.8 nm were obtained. Then, the prepared SAPO-11 was used in the oxidative desulfurization process. The oxidative desulfurization was studied using several factors affecting desulfurization efficiency, such as time (40, 60, 80, 100, and 120) min, amount of MO/SAPO-11 (0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, and 0.7) g/100 ml of simulated oil (100 ppm of dibenzothiophene), the amount of hydrogen peroxide (4ml) oxidizer/100 ml of simulated oil, and the temperature ranges from (40, 50, 60, 70, and 80 °C). The results showed that an increase in MO/SAPO-11 led to an increase in desulfurization. The best removal percentage for sulfur content was 92.79%, obtained at 70 °C and 0.6 g of MO/SAPO-11 containing 7.5% CNT, and the removal was 82.34% at 0% CNT and the same other conditions. While the equilibrium was achieved after 100 min. The results revealed that Freundlich's model described the adsorption of sulfur compounds better than Langmuir's, where the R<sup>2</sup> of the Freundlich model was 0.9979 and the R<sup>2</sup> of the Langmuir model was 0.9554.</p> 2023-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering Sand Modified with Nanoparticles of Calcium, Aluminum, and CTAB in the Form of Layered Double Hydroxide for Removing of Amoxicillin from Groundwater 2023-03-01T17:40:14+00:00 Zainab A. H. Ahmed [email protected] Ayad A. H. Faisal [email protected] <p>The addition of new reactive sites on the surface area of the inert sand, which are represented by layered double hydroxide nanoparticles, is the primary goal of this work, which aims to transform the sand into a reactive material. Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) surfactant is used in the reaction of calcium extracted from solid waste-chicken eggshells with aluminum prepared from the cheapest coagulant-alum. By separating amoxicillin from wastewater, the performance of coated sand named as "sand coated with (Ca/Al-CTAB)-LDH" was evaluated. Measurements demonstrated that pH of 12 from 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12, CTAB dosage of 0.05 g from 0, 0.03, 0.05, and 0.1 g, ratio of Ca/Al of 2 from 1, 2, 3, and 4, and mass of sand of 1 g/50 mL from 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, and 2.5 g/50 mL are the optimal manufacturing conditions for coated sand to guarantee an antibiotic removal efficiency greater than 80. After planting the LDH nanoparticles, characterization analyses revealed that the generation of a plate-like layer composed of loosely aggregated micrometric plates had significantly altered the structure of sand. Finally, as the sorbent mass increased as well as the flow rate and inlet contaminant concentration (<em>C<sub>o</sub></em>) decreased, the longevity of coated sand in the packed column significantly increased. In comparison to the Belter-Cussler-Hu and Yan models, the Thomas-BDST model provides a more accurate simulation of measured breakthrough curves.</p> 2023-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering Removal of Lead Ions from Wastewater by using a Local Adsorbent from Charring Tea Wastes 2023-03-09T18:08:20+00:00 Zahraa Kadhim Abd AL-Hussain [email protected] Hayder M. Abdul-Hameed [email protected] <p> Adsorption of lead ions from wastewater by native agricultural waste, precisely tea waste. After the activation and carbonization of tea waste, there was a substantial improvement in surface area and other physical characteristics which include density, bulk density, and porosity. FTIR analysis indicates that the functional groups in tea waste adsorbent are aromatic and carboxylic. It can be concluded that the tea waste could be a good sorbent for the removal of Lead ions from wastewater. Different dosages of the adsorbents were used in the batch studies. A random series of experiments indicated a removal degree efficiency of lead reaching (95 %) at 5 ppm optimum concentration, with adsorbents R<sup>2</sup> =97.75% for tea. Three models (Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin) have been used to show which is the best operation. It was found that tea waste has an adsorption capacity (q<sub>max</sub>) equal to 2.7972 (mg/g). Equilibrium data fitted well with the Freundlich isotherm because Freundlich assumptions are more suitable to represent the relationship between adsorbent and adsorbate. Two Kinetic Models were applied (first order, and second order) for this study. The adsorption kinetics was investigated and the best fit was achieved by a first-order equation with R<sup>2</sup>= 95.91%.</p> 2023-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering Effect of Heterogeneity on Recovery Factor for Carbonate Reservoirs. A Case Study for Mishrif Formation in West Qurna Oilfield, Southern Iraq 2022-12-31T09:04:55+00:00 Ahmed N. Al-Dujaili [email protected] Mehdi Shabani [email protected] Mohammed S. AL-Jawad [email protected] <p>Oil recovery could be impacted by the relation between vertical permeability (K<sub>v</sub>) and horizontal permeability (K<sub>h</sub>) (K<sub>v</sub>/K<sub>h</sub>). 4816 plugs that have been getting hold of 18 wells of Mishrif formation in the West Qurna oilfield were used. K<sub>v</sub>/K<sub>h</sub> data provided some scatter, but the mean is ~1. K<sub>v</sub>/K<sub>h</sub> =1 was used for the Petrel model before upscaling according to the heterogeneity of each layer.</p> <p>K<sub>v</sub>/K<sub>h</sub> values for Mishrif Formation in West Qurna Oilfield are 0.8 for relatively homogeneous, 0.4 for heterogeneous rock, and 0.1 for cap rocks (CRII).</p> <p> Eclipse <sup>TM </sup>was used for reservoir simulation. PVT and SCAL data enhanced the simulation process. The results showed that the reduction of K<sub>v</sub>/K<sub>h</sub> to 0.9 for the mA unit would reduce the recovery factor (RF) by ~0.9% and continuing lowering would reduce RF more, while the same reduction would reduce RF by ~1% in the mB1 unit. The reduction would be 0.8, which increases RF by ~0.5% for the mB2U unit, while there was no effect on RF in the CRII unit whatever the reductions.</p> 2023-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering Identifying Average Reservoir Pressure in Multilayered Oil Wells Using Selective Inflow Performance (SIP) Method 2023-02-17T13:00:01+00:00 Shamam Tarq [email protected] Dahlia A. Al-Obaidi [email protected] <p>The downhole flow profiles of the wells with single production tubes and mixed flow from more than one layer can be complicated, making it challenging to obtain the average pressure of each layer independently. Production log data can be used to monitor the impacts of pressure depletion over time and to determine average pressure with the use of Selective Inflow Performance (SIP). The SIP technique provides a method of determining the steady state of inflow relationship for each individual layer. The well flows at different stabilized surface rates, and for each rate, a production log is run throughout the producing interval to record both downhole flow rates and flowing pressure. PVT data can be used to convert measured in-situ rates to surface conditions. Different types of Inflow Performance Relationship (IPR) equations can be used for SIP interpretation, including the Straight-line method, Fetkovitch method, and Laminar Internal Turbulent (LIT) relations. Although the SIP method can be used for single-phase flow, the interpreter can restrict the IPR’s calculations to a particular phase. This research discusses the difficulties in estimating the average reservoir pressure in multilayered reservoir completed wells over their production life. The SIP technique has been applied to some producing wells in the south of Iraq, which are completed in multiple producing reservoirs previously tested with a formation tester to estimate reservoir pressure and other parameters. Two wells are taken in the south of Iraq region, Zubair Oil Field, one with cross flow between perforations and the other well with no cross flow. An average pressure is not calculated for layer A in Well-1, because there is no contribution rate. While the average pressure for Well-1, layer B is 3414.49 psia. Also, the average pressure for Well-2, layer H is not calculated because there is no rate contribution from this layer, and the maximum average pressure was calculated in layer G, which is about 2606.26 psia. It is also found that the presence of cross flow has no effect on SIP calculations.</p> 2023-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering Accurate Petrophysical Interpretation of Carbonate using the Elemental Capture Spectroscopy (ECS) 2023-02-21T15:33:31+00:00 Usama Alameedy [email protected] <p>Elemental capture spectroscopy (ECS) is an important tool in the petroleum industry for determining the composition and properties of rock formations in a reservoir. Knowledge of the types and abundance of different minerals in the reservoir is crucial for accurate petrophysical interpretation, reservoir engineering practices, and stratigraphic correlation. ECS measures the elemental content of the rock, which directly impacts several physical properties that are essential for reservoir characterization, such as porosity, fluid saturation, permeability, and matrix density. The ability to accurately determine these properties leads to better reservoir mapping, improved production, and more effective resource management. Accurately determining the mineralogy and porosity of carbonate rocks and other materials is the aim of this paper. Calcite, dolomite, quartz, clay (illite), anhydrite, and pyrite, in addition to water as a fluid, are taken into account in the computation. The formation's lithology and porosity can be ascertained from this data. When compared to the core descriptions in the geological report, the results demonstrated a distinct zone of unique lithology with good prediction accuracy.</p> 2023-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering Review of the Mechanisms for Preventing, Diagnosing, and Treatment of Pipe Sticking in Drilling Operations 2022-08-07T09:10:15+00:00 Muntadher Adil Issa [email protected] Ayad A. Alhaleem A. Alrazzaq [email protected] Yasir Mukhtar [email protected] <p>Stuck pipe is a prevalent and costly issue in drilling operations, with the potential to cost the petroleum industry billions of dollars annually. To reduce the likelihood of this issue, efforts have been made to identify the causes of stuck pipes. The main mechanisms that cause stuck pipes include drill cutting of the formation, inappropriate hole-cleaning, wellbore instability, and differential sticking forces, particularly in highly deviated wellbores. The significant consequences of a stuck pipe include an increase in well costs and Non-Productive Time (NPT), and in the worst-case scenario, the loss of a wellbore section and down-hole equipment, or the need to sidetrack, plug, or abandon the well. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the challenges associated with pipe sticking during drilling operations. The mechanisms of pipe sticking, analysis of differential sticking factors, guiding principles to minimize differential sticking, diagnosis approaches, and different treatment methods are discussed. This paper can serve as a guide for any problem involving stuck pipes in the petroleum industry.</p> 2023-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering Swab – Surge Pressure Investigation, and the Influence Factors, Prediction and Calculation (Review) 2022-08-01T07:54:40+00:00 Amel Habeeb Assi [email protected] <p>Surge pressure is supplemental pressure because of the movement of the pipes downward and the swab pressure is the pressure reduction as a result of the drill string's upward movement. Bottom hole pressure is reduced because of swabbing influence. An Investigation showed that the surge pressure has great importance for the circulation loss problem produced by unstable processes in the management pressure drilling (MPD) actions. Through Trip Margin there is an increase in the hydrostatic pressure of mud that compensates for the reduction of bottom pressure due to stop pumping and/or swabbing effect while pulling the pipe out of the hole. This overview shows suggested mathematical/numerical models for simulating surge pressure problems inside the wellbore with adjustable cross-section parts. The developed models require simple input data that may be gotten from the rig location. Pressure variations due to Swabs and surge has been a major concern in the oil industry for numerous years. If the pressure variations become moreover extraordinary, this leads to formation fracture, and formation influx principal to a kick. In the worst circumstances and situations that kick principal on the blowout and put crew life in hazard. By using theoretical investigation and experimental consequences, it established that the surge pressure is a function of the well depth, the drilling tools combination, the diameter of the wellbore, drilling mud properties, drilling pipe operation speed, and acceleration of the drill pipe movement, etc. This review focuses and investigates the essential theory and on software that computes the pressure variations in different flow conditions to predict surge and swab pressure values.</p> 2023-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering