Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering 2022-09-30T12:13:09+00:00 Dr. Hayder Abdulkareem Aljandeel Open Journal Systems <p>The Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering is a quarterly peer-reviewed scientific journal that was established in 2000 by the College of Engineering / University of Baghdad. The Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering receives citations in the category of Chemical /Petroleum Engineering and relevant subjects.</p> Mathematical Modeling of a Hollow Fiber Module Used in Pressure-Retarded Osmosis Process 2022-06-02T19:33:42+00:00 Farah Adil Yaseen Ahmed Faiq Al-Alawy Adel Sharif <p> Pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) can be considered as one of the methods for utilizing osmotic power, which is a membrane-based technology. Mathematical modeling plays an essential part in the development and optimization of PRO energy-generating systems. In this research, a mathematical model was developed for the hollow fiber module to predict the power density and the permeate water flux theoretically. Sodium chloride solution was employed as the feed and draw solution. Different operating parameters, draw solution concentration (1 and 2 M), the flow rate of draw solution (2, 3, and 4 L/min), and applied hydraulic pressure difference (0 - 90 bar) was used to evaluate the performance of PRO process of a hollow fiber module. The effect of these operational parameters was investigated on the theoretical permeate water flux and power density. According to the theoretical results, the permeate water flux and the power density increased with increasing the concentration of draw solution and the flow rate of the draw solution. While decreased with increasing the feed solution concentration. By increasing the applied hydraulic pressure on the draw solution, the water flux decreased and the produced power density increased. The maximum power density and the corresponding permeate water flux of 2 M NaCl draw solution was approximately 16.414 W/m<sup>2</sup> and 11.818 LMH respectively, which occurs at an applied hydraulic pressure of 50 bar.</p> 2022-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering Kinetic Study of Transesterification Reaction of Edible Oil Using Heterogenous Catalyst 2022-04-10T18:54:23+00:00 Haider Aljendeel Ehab Borhan Mohammed J. Al-Ani <p> AlPO<sub>4</sub> solid acid catalyst was prepared in order to use it in transesterification reaction of edible oil after supporting it with tungsten oxide. The maximum conversion of edible oil was obtained 78.78% at catalyst concentration (5gm.), temperature 70°Ϲ, 30/1 methanol/edible oil molar ratio, and time 5hr. The study of kinetics of the transesterification reaction of edible oil indicates that the reaction has an order of 3/2, while the value of activation energy for transesterification reaction is 51.367 kJ/mole and frequency factor equal 26219.13(L/ mol.minute).</p> 2022-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering Investigating the Performance of Rechargeable Zinc-Air Fuel Cell 2022-05-17T00:22:22+00:00 Ahmed H.Shallal Ibtehal Kareem Shakir <p> Zinc-air fuel cells (ZAFCs) are a promising energy source that could compete with lithium-ion batteries and perhaps proton-exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) for next-generation electrified transportation and energy storage applications. In the present work, a flow-type ZAFC with mechanical rechargeable was adopted, combined with an auxiliary cell (electrolyzer) for zinc renewal and electrolyte recharge to the main cell. In this work a practical study was performed to calculate the cell capacity (Ah), as well as study the electrolysis cell efficiency by current efficiency, and study the effective parameters that have an influence on cell performance such as space velocity and current density. The best parameters were selected to obtain the best performance for cell operation. The obtained cell capacity was 2.4Ah. The best performance of the electrolyzer was obtained with 0.6min<sup>-1</sup> space velocity. At the same time, the best performance of the electrolyzer was when the value of the current density was 200A/m<sup>2</sup></p> 2022-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering Adsorption Isotherms and Isosteric Heat of Adsorption of Metal Organic Frameworks as Gas Storage for Liquefied Petroleum Gas Vehicle in Iraq 2022-06-11T18:38:46+00:00 Mohammed Sattar Jabbar Rana Th. Abd Alrubaye <p> This research provides a novel technique for using metal organic frameworks (HKUST-1) as a gas storage system for liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) in Iraqi vehicles to avoid the drawbacks of the currently employed method of LPG gas storage. A low-cost adsorbent called HKUST-1 was prepared and characterized in this research to investigate its ability for propane storage at different temperatures (25, 30, 35, and 40 <sup>o</sup>C) and pressures of (1-7) bar. HKUST-1 was made using a hydrothermal method and characterized using powder X-ray diffraction, BET surface area, scanning electron microscopic (SEM), and Fourier Transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The HKUST-1 was produced using a hydrothermal technique and possesses a high crystallinity of up to 97%, surface area 3400 m<sup>2</sup>/g, and pore volume 0.7 cm<sup>3</sup>/g. The prepared adsorbent (HKUST-1) tested using volumetric method, the maximum adsorption capacity of propane was (10.499 mmol/g) at a temperature of 298K and a pressure of 7 bar. Furthermore, adsorption isotherm study was conducted to understand the system equilibrium (i.e., the fitting with one of the known models Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin isotherm models). It was observed that the Freundlich isotherm model fitted well the experimental data. The Clausius-Clapeyron equation was used to determine the heat of adsorption, and the results revealed that the heat of adsorption increased as the propane adsorption capacity increased. The prepared HKUST-1, which has a large surface area and a high adsorption capacity, can be used as a major solution for gas storage for liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) in Iraqi vehicles.</p> 2022-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering Laboratory Testing and Evaluating of Shale Interaction with Mud for Tanuma Shale formation in Southern Iraq 2022-05-20T17:52:22+00:00 Fadhil H. AlShibli Ayad A. Alhaleem A. Alrazzaq <p> Rock failure during drilling is an important problem to be solved in petroleum technology. one of the most causes of rock failure is shale chemical interaction with drilling fluids. This interaction is changing the shale strength as well as its pore pressure relatively near the wellbore wall. In several oilfields in southern Iraq, drilling through the Tanuma formation is known as the most challenging operation due to its unstable behavior. Understanding the chemical reactions between shale and drilling fluid is determined by examining the features of shale and its behavior with drilling mud. Chemical interactions must be mitigated by the selection of suitable drilling mud with effective chemical additives. This study is describing the laboratory methods that concern testing and evaluating the shale instability encountered while drilling operations. The cutting samples are collected from the targeted formation and used to categorize shale reactivity levels and the required additives to inhibit the clay instability. These tests include the descriptive method with the various analytical technique of standard laboratory equipment. The shale testing techniques are the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), X-ray Diffraction, X-ray Fluorescence, Cation-Exchange, Capacity (CEC), and Capillary Suction Timer test (CST). Also, Linear swelling meter test (LSM) was performed to enhance the development plan. Tanuma formation contains moderately active clay with the presence of microfractures and micropores in its morphology. And it is controllable by using polymer muds with 8 % of inorganic inhibitor (e.g., KCL), filtration controls additives, and poly amino acid hydration suppressant which showed minimum swelling percentage.</p> 2022-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering Kinetics and Activation Complex Thermodynamic Study of the Acidity Removal of Oleic Acid via Esterification Reaction on Commercial 13X Zeolite 2022-07-24T17:38:10+00:00 Shahad Jurmot Ammar S. Abbas <p> The study involved the removal of acidity from free fatty acid via the esterification reaction of oleic acid with ethanol. The reaction was done in a batch reactor using commercial 13X zeolite as a catalyst. The effects of temperatures (40 to 70 °C) and reaction time (up to 120 minutes) were studied using 6:1 mole ratio of pure ethanol to oleic acid and 5 wt. % of the catalyst. The results showed that acid removed increased with increasing temperature and reaction time. Also, the acidity removal rises sharply during the first reaction period and then changes slightly afterward. The highest acidity removal value was 67 % recorded at 110 minutes and 70 °C. An apparent homogeneous reversible reaction kinetic model has been proposed and solved with the experimentally obtained kinetics data to evaluate reaction rate constants versus temperature, pre-exponential factors, and activation energy values for the forward and the backward esterification reactions. The activation energies were 34.863 kJ/mol for the forward reaction and 29.731 kJ/mol for the backward reaction. The thermodynamics of the activation step of the forward and reverse reactions was studied based on the hypothesis of forming a complex material that decomposes into a product. The activation steps were studied using Eyring bimolecular collision theory approach, and both ΔH* and ΔS* were determined for forward and backward esterification reactions. The enthalpies of activation were 32.141 kJ/mol and 27.080 kJ/mol for the forward reaction and the backward reaction, and the entropies of activation were - 193.7 and -212.7 J/mol. K for the forward reaction and the backward reaction, respectively.</p> 2022-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering Cadmium Removal Using Bio-Electrochemical Reactor with Packed Bed Rotating Cylindrical Cathode: A Kinetics Study 2022-07-30T21:09:30+00:00 Zahraa A.kadhim Ali H. Abbar <p> The kinetics of removing cadmium from aqueous solutions was studied using a bio-electrochemical reactor with a packed bed rotating cylindrical cathode. The effect of applied voltage, initial concentration of cadmium, cathode rotation speed, and pH on the reaction rate constant (k) was studied. The results showed that the cathodic deposition occurred under the control of mass transfer for all applied voltage values ​​used in this research. Accordingly, the relationship between logarithmic concentration gradient with time can be represented by a first-order kinetic rate equation. It was found that the rate constant (k) depends on the applied voltage, the initial cadmium concentration, the pH and the rotational speed of cathode. It was increased with increasing the applied voltage and its relationship with the applied voltage obeyed an exponential formula. The rate constant (k) was decreased with increasing the initial concentration of cadmium higher than 150ppm while at low concentrations it was increased. pH and rotational speed have different effects on the rate constant. Increasing the pH from 3 to 6 increases the rate constant while a slight decrease in the rate constant occurs at pH = 7. Increasing the rotation from 100 to 500 rpm increases the rate constant; however, the rate constant became approximately constant buoyed 300 rpm.</p> <p> </p> <p> </p> 2022-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering Upgrading of Sharqy Baghdad Heavy Oil via N-Hexane Solvent 2022-06-29T21:38:35+00:00 Firdews Shakir Hussein Hussein Zeinab Abdulwahhab <p> Asphaltenes are a solubility class described as a component of crude oil with undesired characteristics. In this study, Sharqy Baghdad heavy oil upgrading was achieved utilizing the solvent deasphalting approach as asphaltenes are insoluble in paraffinic solvents; they may be removed from heavy crude oil by adding N-Hexane as a solvent to create deasphalted oil (DAO)of higher quality. This method is known as Solvent De-asphalting (SDA). Different effects have been assessed for the SDA process, such as solvent to oil ratio (4-16/1 ml/g), the extraction temperature (23 ºC) room temperature and (68 ºC) reflux temperature at (0.5 h mixing time with 400 rpm mixing speed). The best solvent deasphalting results were obtained at room temperature and 12 ml/g solvents to oil ratio. As a result, the API of DAO was increased by 9.3º compared to the API of Sharqy Baghdad heavy oil. The asphaltene reduction was 61.56%. The Sulfur removal was 32.8%, the Vanadium removal was 36.48%, and the Nickel removal was 46.21%.</p> 2022-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering Risk-Based Inspection Due to Corrosion Consequences for Oil and Gas Flowline: A Review 2022-06-23T09:07:21+00:00 Fatima Mmahmood Dhifaf Jaafar <p> The petroleum industry, which is one of the pillars of the national economy, has the potential to generate vast wealth and employment possibilities. The transportation of petroleum products is complicated and changeable because of the hazards caused by the corrosion consequences. Hazardous chemical leaks caused by natural disasters may harm the environment, resulting in significant economic losses. It significantly threatens the aim for sustainable development. When a result, determining the likelihood of leakage and the potential for environmental harm, it becomes a top priority for decision-makers as they develop maintenance plans. This study aims to provide an in-depth understanding of the risks associated with oil and gas pipelines. It also tries to identify essential risk factors in flowline projects, as well as their likelihood and severity, in order to reduce loss of life and increased expenditures as a result of safety issues. The monetary quantification was used to determine the leakage-induced environmental losses. Using a 5-by-5 probability-currency matrix, the level of environmental risk was evaluated the safety and risk-based inspection (RBI) is evaluated through the use of specific schedules to determine the likelihood of failure (LOF) and Consequence of Failure (COF). The risk level appears in the matrix, and appropriate maintenance steps should be taken to reduce risks, such as injecting corrosion inhibitors to protect the Pipelines, activating cathodic protection or coating. Overall, this research contributes to the prevention of petroleum product leakage due to the corrosion consequences in the transportation sector. Also, encourage non-environmental risk decision-makers to gain a better understanding of the risk level.</p> 2022-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering Polyacrylamide Polymer Gel Systems for Conformance Control Technology: A Review 2022-07-04T18:11:36+00:00 Ali Al-delfi Faleh H. M. Al-Mahdawi <p>Low oil extraction and early high water production are caused in part by reservoir heterogeneity. Huge quantities of water production are prevalent issues that happen in older reservoirs. Polyacrylamide polymer gel systems have been frequently employed as plugging agents in heterogeneous reservoirs to regulate water output and increase sweep efficiency. Polyacrylamide polymer gel systems are classified into three classes depending on their composition and application conditions, which are in-situ monomer gel, in-situ polymer gel, and preformed particle gel (PPG).</p> <p> This paper gives a comprehensive review of PPG’s status, preparation, and mechanisms. Many sorts of PPGs are categorized, for example, millimeter-sized preformed particle gels, microgels, pH-sensitive cross-linked polymers, swelling polymer grains, and Bright Water®. In addition to this, the most important factors to consider while assessing gel performance, such as swelling capacity, PPG injectivity, and plugging efficiency, are studied carefully. Not only are the design considerations and field application of PPG mentioned, but also the advantages of PPG are demonstrated. Gels have been used in around 10,000 wells worldwide to reduce the fractures permeability or super-high permeability channels during water and polymer floods.</p> <p> </p> 2022-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering