Retraction is a process by which any published materials/document in any journal is identified for being flawed to the extent that their findings are no longer be relied on. Retracted documents are probably not removed from the journal/publisher repository but labeled as a retracted paper.

However, the published document (in some cases) may be required to remove from the journal repository in case it is violates personal privacy, defamatory, or might contain a serious health risk to the general public, please visit COPE Retraction Guidelines.

The retraction process can be applied by the editor(s) of a IJCPE journal and sometimes by the author(s) of the papers or even by the institution(s) of the author(s).