A Review on Models for Evaluating Rock Petrophysical Properties
Keywords:Petrophysical Properties, Hydrocarbon, Reservoir, Shale Volume, Porosity, Water Saturation, Permeability, Petroleum Technology, Interpretation.
The evaluation of subsurface formations as applied to oil well drilling started around 50 years ago. Generally, the curent review articule includes all methods for coring, logging, testing, and sampling. Also the methods for deciphering logs and laboratory tests that are relevant to assessing formations beneath the surface, including a look at the fluids they contain are discussed. Casing is occasionally set in order to more precisely evaluate the formations; as a result, this procedure is also taken into account while evaluating the formations. The petrophysics of reservoir rocks is the branch of science interested in studying chemical and physical properties of permeable media and the components of reservoir rocks which are associated with the pore and fluid distribution. Throughout recent years, several studies have been conducted on rock properties, such as porosity, permeability, capillary pressure, hydrocarbon saturation, fluid properties, electrical resistivity, self-or natural-potential, and radioactivity of different types of rocks. These properties and their relationships are used to evaluate the presence or absence of commercial quantities of hydrocarbons in formations penetrated by, or lying near, the wellbore. A principal purpose of this paper is to review the history of development the most common techniques used to calculate petrophysics properties in the laboratory and field based primarily on the researchers and scientists own experience in this field.
S. S. Zughar, A. A. Ramadhan, and A. K. Jaber, “Petrophysical Properties of an Iraqi Carbonate Reservoir Using Well Log Evaluation” Iraqi J. Chem. Pet. Eng., vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 53–59, 2020, https://doi.org/10.31699/IJCPE.2020.1.8.
R. M. Idan, A. L. M. Salih, O. N. A. Al-Khazraji, and M. H. Khudhair, “Depositional environments, facies distribution, and porosity analysis of Yamama Formation in majnoon oilfield. Sequence stratigraphic approach,” Iraqi Geol. J., pp. 38–52, 2020, https://doi.org/10.46717/igj.53.1D.4Rw-2020-05-03.
H. Liu, Principles and applications of well logging. Springer, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-53383-3.
N. M. S. Numan, “A plate tectonic scenario for the Phanerozoic succession in Iraq,” Iraqi Geol. J., vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 85–110, 1997.
Y. Yu and H. Menouar, “An experimental method to measure the porosity from cuttings: Evaluation and error analysis,” SPE Production and Operations Symposium, USA, 2015, https://doi.org/SPE-173591-MS.
M. Amiri, J. Ghiasi-Freez, B. Golkar, and A. Hatampour, “Improving water saturation estimation in a tight shaly sandstone reservoir using artificial neural network optimized by imperialist competitive algorithm–A case study,” J. Pet. Sci. Eng., vol. 127, pp. 347–358, 2015, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2015.01.013.
U. Ahmed, S. F. Crary, and G. R. Coates, “Permeability estimation: the various sources and their interrelationships,” J. Pet. Technol., vol. 43, no. 05, pp. 578–587, 1991, https://doi.org/10.2118/19604-PA.
C.F. Haro, “The perfect permeability transform using logs and cores”, Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, 2004, https://doi.org/10.2118/89516-MS.
C. B. Dennis and T. D. Lawrence, “Log evaluation of clastic shaly formations using corrected Rwa-ratio techniques,” SPWLA 25th Annual Logging Symposium, 1984.
J. Nykolaiszyn and G. Ponnaganti, “Metadata on my mind: Automating troubleshooting to increase discovery of collections,” 2019.
Y. Fan, B. Pan, Y. Guo, and J. Lei, “Effects of Clay Minerals and Pore-Water Conductivity on Saturation Exponent of Clay- Bearing Sandstones Based on Digital Rock,” vol. 61, pp. 352–362, Aug. 2020, https://doi.org/10.30632/PJV61N4-2020a2.
J. Sam-Marcus, E. Enaworu, O. J. Rotimi, and I. Seteyeobot, “A proposed solution to the determination of water saturation: using a modelled equation,” J. Pet. Explor. Prod. Technol., vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 1009–1015, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1007/s13202-018-0453-4.
J. M. Wheatley, N. S. Rosenfield, G. Heller, D. Feldstein, and M. P. LaQuaglia, “Validation of a technique of computer-aided tumor volume determination,” J. Surg. Res., vol. 59, no. 6, pp. 621–626, 1995, https://doi.org/10.1006/jsre.1995.1214.
A. F. Atanda, D. D. Dominic, and A. K. Mahmood, “Theoretical framework for multi-agent collaborative knowledge sharing for competitiveness of institutions of higher learning (IHL) in Malaysia”, 2012 International Conference on Computer & Information Science (ICCIS), 2012, http://doi.org/ 10.1109/ICCISci.2012.6297208.
O. J. Mkinga, E. Skogen, and J. Kleppe, “Petrophysical interpretation in shaly sand formation of a gas field in Tanzania,” J. Pet. Explor. Prod. Technol., vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 1201–1213, 2020, https://doi.org/10.1007/s13202-019-00819-x.
D. Tiab and E. C. Donaldson, “Petrophysics: theory and practice of measuring reservoir rock and fluid transport properties”. Gulf professional publishing, 2015.
R. M. Jarvis, “Judges and Gambling,” UNLV Gaming LJ, vol. 10, p. 1, 2020.
H. Mohammadlou and M. Mørk, “How Log Interpreter Uses SEM Data for Clay Volume Calculation,” 2012, http://doi.org/10.5772/35142.
E. C. Onyia, “Relationships between formation strength, drilling strength, and electric log properties,” SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, 1988, https://doi.org/10.2118/18166-MS.
V. Matko, “Porosity determination by using stochastics method,” Autom. časopis za Autom. Mjer. Elektron. računarstvo i Komun., vol. 44, no. 3–4, pp. 155–162, 2003.
B. Erfourth, C. Wright, N. Hudyma, and M. MacLaughlin, “Numerical Models of Macroporous Rock: Quantifying the Influence of Void Characteristics on Elastic Modulus,” Golden Rocks 2006, The 41st U.S. Symposium on Rock Mechanics (USRMS), Jun. 17, 2006.
D. El Abassi, A. Ibhi, B. Faiz, and I. Aboudaoud, “A simple method for the determination of the porosity and tortuosity of meteorites with ultrasound,” J. Geophys. Eng., vol. 10, no. 5, p. 55003, 2013, https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-2132/10/5/055003.
M. A. Westbrook and J. F. Redmond, “A new technique for determining the porosity of drill cuttings,” vol. 165, no. 01, pp. 219–222, 1946, https://doi.org/10.2118/946219-G.
P. Horsrud, “Estimating mechanical properties of shale from empirical correlations,” SPE Drill. Complet., vol. 16, no. 02, pp. 68–73, 2001, https://doi.org/10.2118/56017-PA.
S. Siddiqui, A. S. Grader, M. Touati, A. M. Loermans, and J. J. Funk, “Techniques for extracting reliable density and porosity data from cuttings,” SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, 2005, https://doi.org/10.2118/96918-MS.
R. Lenormand and O. Fonta, “Advances in measuring porosity and permeability from drill cuttings,” SPE/EAGE Reservoir Characterization and Simulation Conference, 2007, https://doi.org/10.2118/111286-MS.
D. J. Ford, “The challenges of observing geologically: Third graders’ descriptions of rock and mineral properties,” Sci. Educ., vol. 89, no. 2, pp. 276–295, 2005, https://doi.org/10.1002/sce.20049.
B. Hughes, “Introduction to wireline log analysis,” Bak. Atlas, 2002.
S. A. Shedid and M. A. Saad, “Comparison and sensitivity analysis of water saturation models in shaly sandstone reservoirs using well logging data,” J. Pet. Sci. Eng., vol. 156, pp. 536–545, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2017.06.005.
C. Barros and A. Andrade, “Determination of water saturation by intelligent algorithm,” III SimBGf, 2008.
J. R. Fanchi, Principles of applied reservoir simulation. Elsevier, 2005.
S. Tandon, C. Newgord, and Z. Heidari, “Wettability quantification in mixed-wet rocks using a new NMR-based method,” SPE Reserv. Eval. Eng., vol. 23, no. 03, pp. 896–916, 2020, https://doi.org/10.2118/191509-PA.
W. H. Nugent, G. R. Coates, and R. P. Peebler, “A new approach to carbonate analysis,” SPWLA 19th Annual Logging Symposium, 1978.
I. Odizuru-Abangwu, A. Suleiman, and C. Nwosu, “The impact of different shaly sand models on in place volumes and reservoir producibility in niger delta reservoirs-the dual water and normalized Waxman-Smits saturation models,” Nigeria Annual International Conference and Exhibition, 2010, https://doi.org/10.2118/140627-MS.
H. Daigle, B. Ghanbarian, P. Henry, and M. Conin, “Universal scaling of the formation factor in clays: Example from the Nankai Trough,” J. Geophys. Res. Solid Earth, vol. 120, no. 11, pp. 7361–7375, 2015, https://doi.org/10.1002/2015JB012262.
D. J. Hartmann, E. A. Beaumont, and N. H. Foster, “Predicting reservoir system quality and performance,” Explor. oil gas traps AAPG Treatise Pet. Geol. Handb. Pet. Geol., pp. 1–9, 1999.
Y. Kuang, L. Sima, Z. Zhang, Z. Wang, and M. Chen, “A model for estimating the saturation exponent based on NMR in tight sandy conglomerate reservoirs,” Arab. J. Sci. Eng., vol. 43, no. 11, pp. 6305–6313, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1007/s13369-017-3013-1.
M. El-Bagoury, “Integrated petrophysical study to validate water saturation from well logs in Bahariya Shaley Sand Reservoirs, case study from Abu Gharadig Basin, Egypt,” J. Pet. Explor. Prod. Technol., vol. 10, no. 8, pp. 3139–3155, 2020, https://doi.org/10.1007/s13202-020-00969-3.
D. V Ellis and J. M. Singer, Well logging for earth scientists, vol. 692. Springer, 2007, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-4602-5.
S. Deng, Q. Sun, H. Li, N. Huo, and X. He, “The sensitivity of the array resistivity log to mud filtrate invasion and its primary five-parameter inversion for improved oil water recognition,” Pet. Sci., vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 295–302, 2012, https://doi.org/10.1007/s12182-012-0212-y.
R. F. Aguilera, “A triple porosity model for petrophysical analysis of naturally fractured reservoirs,” Petrophysics-The SPWLA J. Form. Eval. Reserv. Descr., vol. 45, no. 02, 2004.
K. Yazdchi, S. Srivastava, and S. Luding, “On the validity of the Carman-Kozeny equation in random fibrous media,” in PARTICLES II: proceedings of the II International Conference on Particle-Based Methods: fundamentals and applications, pp. 264–273, 2011.
C. Haro, “The theory behind the Carman–Kozeny equation in the quest for permeability of the Rocks,” GeoConvention Integr. 5th–10th May, Calgary, Canada, 2013.
M. P. Tixier, “Evaluation of permeability from electric-log resistivity gradients,” Oil Gas J., vol. 16, pp. 113–133, 1949.
W. L. Watney, J. H. Doveton, and W. J. Guy, “Development and demonstration of an enhanced spreadsheet-based well log analysis software. Final report, May 1998,” Kansas Geological Survey, Lawrence, KS (United States), 1998, https://doi.org/10.2172/296691.
N. E. Stauff, K. Biegel, W. N. Mann, and B. Dixon, “Feb. 2021 Electricity Blackouts and Natural Gas Shortages in Texas,” Argonne National Lab.(ANL), Argonne, IL (United States), 2021.
D. H. Gray and I. Fatt, “The effect of stress on permeability of sandstone cores,” Soc. Pet. Eng. J., vol. 3, no. 02, pp. 95–100, 1963, https://doi.org/10.2118/531-PA.
M. Abdideh, N. B. Birgani, and H. Amanipoor, “Estimating the reservoir permeability and fracture density using petrophysical logs in Marun oil field (SW Iran),” Pet. Sci. Technol., vol. 31, no. 10, pp. 1048–1056, 2013, https://doi.org/10.1080/10916466.2010.536806.
S. Cannon, Petrophysics: a practical guide. John Wiley & Sons, 2015.
R. L. Thomas, H. A. Nasr-El-Din, J. D. Lynn, S. Mehta, and S. R. Zaidi, “Precipitation during the acidizing of a HT/HP illitic sandstone reservoir in eastern Saudi Arabia: a laboratory study,” SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, 2001, https://doi.org/10.2118/71690-MS.
G. Zhiye and H. Qinhong, “Estimating permeability using median pore-throat radius obtained from mercury intrusion porosimetry,” J. Geophys. Eng., vol. 10, no. 2, p. 25014, 2013, https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-2132/10/2/025014.
B. Balan, S. Mohaghegh, and S. Ameri, “State-of-the-art in permeability determination from well log data: Part 1-A comparative study, model development,” SPE Eastern Regional Meeting, 1995, https://doi.org/10.2118/30978-MS.
B. Shen, D. Wu, and Z. Wang, “A new method for permeability estimation from conventional well logs in glutenite reservoirs,” J. Geophys. Eng., vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 1268–1274, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-2140/aa7798.
W. T. MacKenzie, “Petrophysical study of the Cardium sand in the Pembina Field,” Fall Meeting of the Society of Petroleum Engineers of AIME, 1975, https://doi.org/10.2118/5541-MS.
P. Khodaei, S. Karimpouli, M. Balcewicz, and E. H. Saenger, “Computing wave velocity of rock sample using rock chips and cuttings,” J. Pet. Sci. Eng., vol. 209, p. 109849, 2022, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2021.109849.
P. F. Worthington and L. Cosentino, “The role of cut-offs in integrated reservoir studies,” SPE Reserv. Eval. Eng., vol. 8, no. 04, pp. 276–290, 2005, https://doi.org/10.2118/84387-PA.
J. Jensen, L. W. Lake, P. W. M. Corbett, and D. Goggin, Statistics for petroleum engineers and geoscientists, vol. 2. Gulf Professional Publishing, 2000.
G. W. Gunter, D. R. Spain, E. J. Viro, J. B. Thomas, G. Potter, and J. Williams, “Winland pore throat prediction method-a proper retrospect: new examples from carbonates and complex systems,” SPWLA 55th Annual Logging Symposium, 2014.
N. Bouffin, “Net pay evaluation: a comparison of methods to estimate net pay and net-to-gross ratio using surrogate variables.” Texas A & M University, 2010.
P. Masoudi, B. Arbab, and H. Mohammadrezaei, “Net pay determination by Dempster rule of combination: Case study on Iranian offshore oil fields,” J. Pet. Sci. Eng., vol. 123, pp. 78–83, 2014, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2014.07.014.
Received on 12/06/2022
Received in Revised Form on 07/08/2022
Accepted on 08/08/2022
Published on 30/03/2023
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2023 Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
For papers published in IJCPE, authors and their institutions all have the same rights to reuse articles published in the journal in accordance with the journal by IJCPE is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License. This permits users to copy, redistribute, remix, transmit and adapt the work provided the original work and source is appropriately cited. Please check the license for full license terms and attribution requirements.