Optimization of Pb (II) Ion Removal from Synthetic Wastewater Using Dead (Chlorophyta) Macroalgae: Prediction by RSM Method


  • Daad S. Dawood Department of Environmental Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Baghdad, Iraq
  • Abeer I. Alwared Department of Environmental Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Baghdad, Iraq https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8777-5674
  • Sara S. Alkhazraji College of Engineering, University of Baghdad, Iraq
  • Wameath S. Abdul-Majeed Chemical and Petrochemical Engineering Department, University of Nizwa, Sultanate of Oman https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2697-6602




Adsorption, Chlorophyta Algae, Pb (II) ions removal, Algae characteristics, Response surface methodology


The Pb2+ ions biosorption removal onto dead biomass of Chlorophyta algae is optimized by employing response surface methodology (RSM). Central composite design (CCD)-based experiments were carried out, and RSM was used to evaluate the results. The effects of contact time (15-120min), with pH solution (2-7), initial lead concentration (25-100 mg/L), biomass dose (0.01-1 g/100 mL), agitation speed (100-300 rpm) on the biosorption process were investigated. The optimal conditions of the experimental, data were pH (5), metal concentration (50mg/L), dosage (0.2g/100mL), agitation speed (200 rpm), and contact time of 120 min with constant particle size (63 mm), which gave 98.88% removal efficiency. All the variables and reactions in the biosorption experiments were evaluated using the desirability function to determine the optimal point at which the desired parameters may be attained. The promising results obtained indicate the potential use of Chlorphyta green macroalgae to treat industrial wastewater polluted with toxic metals.


J. Bastos-Arrieta and C. Palet, “Sustainable Processes for the Removal of Heavy Metals from Aquatic Systems”, Water, Vol. 15, 2023, pp.761, https://doi.org/10.3390/w15040761

M. Anbia, K. Kargosha, and S. Khoshbooei, “Heavy metal ions removal from aqueous media by modified magnetic mesoporous silica MCM-48”, Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Vol.93, 2015, pp.779-788, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cherd.2014.07.018

K. Li, Z. Zheng, and Y. Li, “Characterization and lead adsorption properties of activated carbons prepared from cotton stalk by one-step H3PO4 activation”, Journal of hazardous materials, Vol. 181, 2010, pp.440-447, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2010.05.030

A. Sarı, and M.Tuzen, “Kinetic and equilibrium studies of biosorption of Pb (II) and Cd (II) from aqueous solution by macrofungus (Amanita rubescens) biomass”, Journal of hazardous materials, Vol.164, 2009, pp.1004-1011, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.09.002

A. Kwarciak-Kozłowska, and L. Sławik-Dembiczak, “Biosorption of lead from municipal wastewater by alginate beads, free and alginate-immobilized Chlorella vulgaris”, Desalination and Water Treatment, Vol. 218, 2021, pp.303-308, https://doi.org/10.5004/dwt.2021.26969

K. H. Kim, A. A. Keller, and J. K. Yang, “Removal of heavy metals from aqueous solution using a novel composite of recycled materialsm,” Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, Vol. 425, 2013, pp.6-14, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfa.2013.02.044

I. Ali, C. Peng, D. Lin, D. P. Saroj, I. Naz, Z. M. Khan, M. Sultan, and M. Ali, “Encapsulated green magnetic nanoparticles for the removal of toxic Pb2+ and Cd2+ from water: Development, characterization, and application”, Journal of environmental management, Vol. 234, 2019, pp.273-289, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2018.12.112

A. soenmezay, M. S. Öncel, and N. bektaş, “Adsorption of lead and cadmium ions from aqueous solutions using manganoxide minerals”, Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China, Vol. 22, 2012, pp.3131-3139,


N. Yin, K. Wang, L. Wang, and Z. Li, “Amino-functionalized MOFs combining ceramic membrane ultrafiltration for Pb (II) removal”, Chemical Engineering Journal, Vol. 306, 2016, pp.619-628, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2016.07.064

Y. Y. Azila, M. D. Mashitah, and S. Bhatia, “Process optimization studies of lead (Pb (II)) biosorption onto immobilized cells of Pycnoporus sanguineus using response surface methodology”, Bioresource technology, Vol. 99, 2008, pp.8549-8552, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2008.03.056

A. M. Ridha, “Removal of lead (II) from aqueous solution using chitosan impregnated granular activated carbon”, Journal of Engineering, Vol. 23, 2017, pp.46-60, https://doi.org/10.31026/j.eng.2017.03.04

H. N. Abdulkareem, and A. I. Alwared, "Performance of Immobilized Chlorella algae for removing Pb (II) ions from aqueous solution", Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Vol. 20, No. 3, 2019, pp.1-6, https://doi.org/10.31699/IJCPE.2019.3.1

L. A. Romero-Cano, H. García-Rosero, L. V. Gonzalez-Gutierrez, L. A. Baldenegro-Pérez, and F. Carrasco-Marín, “Functionalized adsorbents prepared from fruit peels: Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies for copper adsorption in aqueous solution”, Journal of cleaner production, Vol. 162, 2017, pp.195-204, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.06.032

K. C. Sekhar, C. T. Kamala, N. S. Chary, and Y. Anjaneyulu, “Removal of heavy metals using a plant biomass with reference to environmental control”, International Journal of Mineral Processing, Vol. 68, No. (1-4), 2003, pp.37-45, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0301-7516(02)00047-9

C. B. Vidal, D. Q. Melo, G. S. Raulino, A. D. da Luz, C. da Luz, and R. F. Nascimento,” Multielement adsorption of metal ions using Tururi fibers (Manicaria Saccifera): experiments, mathematical modeling, and numerical simulation”, Desalination and Water Treatment, Vol. 57, No. 19, 2016, pp.9001-9008, https://doi.org/10.1080/19443994.2015.1025441

D. Inthorn, N. Sidtitoon, S. Silapanuntakul, and A. Incharoensakdi, “Sorption of mercury, cadmium, and lead by microalgae”, Sci Asia, Vol. 28 No.3, 2002, pp.253-261, https://doi.org/10.2306/scienceasia1513-1874.2002.28.253

R. Muñoz, M. T. Alvarez, A. Muñoz, E. Terrazas, B. Guieysse, and B. Mattiasson,” Sequential removal of heavy metals ions and organic pollutants using an algal-bacterial consortium”, Chemosphere, Vol.63 No.6, 2006, pp.903-911, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2005.09.062

R. K. Gautam, A. Mudhoo, G. Lofrano, and M. C. Chattopadhyaya, “Biomass-derived biosorbents for metal ions sequestration: Adsorbent modification and activation methods and adsorbent regeneration”, Journal of environmental chemical engineering, Vol. 2 No. 1, 2014, pp.239-259, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jece.2013.12.019

J. C. M. Pires, “Handbook of Marine Microalgae”, 2015.

C. Solisio, S. Al Arni, and A. Converti, “Adsorption of inorganic mercury from aqueous solutions onto dry biomass of Chlorella vulgaris: kinetic and isotherm study”, Environmental Technology, Vol. 40, No. 5, 2019, pp.664-672, https://doi.org/10.1080/09593330.2017.1400114

H. Abdelkareem, A. Alwared, T. J. Al-Musawi, and F. Brouers, “A comparative study for the identification of superior biomass facilitating biosorption of copper and lead ions: a single alga or a mixture of algae”, International Journal of Environmental Research, Vol. 13, 2019, pp.533-546, https://doi.org/10.1007/s41742-019-00194-9

R. H. Myers, D. C. Montgomery, and C. M. Anderson-Cook, “Response surface methodology: process and product optimization using designed experiments”, John Wiley and Sons, 2016.

S. Al-Asheh, F. Banat, and F. Mohai, “Sorption of copper and nickel by spent animal bones”, Chemosphere, Vol. 39, No. 12, 1999, pp.2087-2096, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0045-6535(99)00098-3

D. C. Montgomery,” Design and analysis of experiments”, John Wiley and sons, 2017.

R. Ahmad, and A. Mirza, “Facile one-pot green synthesis of Chitosan-Iron oxide (CS-Fe2O3) nanocomposite: Removal of Pb (II) and Cd (II) from synthetic and industrial wastewater”, Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol. 186, 2018, pp.342-352, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.03.075

J. Coates, “Interpretation of infrared spectra, a practical approach”, 2000.

J. Feng, J. Zhang, W. Song, J. Liu, Z. Hu, and B. Bao, “An environmental-friendly magnetic bio-adsorbent for high-efficiency Pb (Ⅱ) removal: Preparation, characterization and its adsorption performance”, Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, Vol. 203, 2020, p.111002, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2020.111002

A. M. Elgarahy, K. Z. Elwakeel, S. H. Mohammad, and G. A. Elshoubaky, “Multifunctional eco-friendly sorbent based on marine brown algae and bivalve shells for subsequent uptake of Congo red dye and copper (II) ions”, Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, Vol. 8, No.4, 2020, p.103915, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jece.2020.103915

I. Michalak, K. Marycz, K. Basińska, and K. Chojnacka, “Using SEM-EDX and ICP-OES to investigate the elemental composition of green macroalga Vaucheria sessilis”, The Scientific World Journal, 2014, Article ID 891928, pp.1-8, https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/891928

V. R. Moreira, Y. A. R. Lebron, S. J. Freire, L. V. S. Santos, F. Palladino, and R. S. Jacob, “Biosorption of copper ions from aqueous solution using Chlorella pyrenoidosa: Optimization, equilibrium and kinetics studies”, Microchemical Journal, Vol. 145, 2019, pp.119-129, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.microc.2018.10.027

M. Sarkar, and P. Majumdar, “Application of response surface methodology for optimization of heavy metal biosorption using surfactant modified chitosan bead’, Chemical Engineering Journal, Vol. 175, 2011, pp.376-387, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2011.09.125

K. Yetilmezsoy, S. Demirel, and R.J. Vanderbei, “Response surface modeling of Pb (II) removal from aqueous solution by Pistacia vera L.: Box–Behnken experimental design”, Journal of hazardous materials, Vol. 171, No. (1-3), 2009, pp.551-562, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.06.035

D.R. Hamsaveni, S.G. Prapulla, and S. Divakar, “Response surface methodological approach for the synthesis of isobutyl isobutyrate”, Process Biochemistry, Vol. 36, No. 11, 2001, pp.1103-1109, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0032-9592(01)00142-X

V. Afraz, H. Younesi, M. Bolandi, and M. R. Hadiani, “Optimization of lead and cadmium biosorption by Lactobacillus acidophilus using response surface methodology”, Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, Vol. 29, 2020, p.101828, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bcab.2020.101828

S. Abbasizadeh, A. R. Keshtkar, M. A. and Mousavian, “Preparation of a novel electrospun polyvinyl alcohol/titanium oxide nanofiber adsorbent modified with mercapto groups for uranium (VI) and thorium (IV) removal from aqueous solution”, Chemical Engineering Journal, Vol. 220, 2013, pp.161-17, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2013.01.029

M. Amini, H. Younesi, N. Bahramifar, A. A. Z. Lorestani, F. Ghorbani, A. Daneshi, and M. Sharifzadeh, “Application of response surface methodology for optimization of lead biosorption in an aqueous solution by Aspergillus niger”, Journal of hazardous materials, Vol. 154, No. (1-3), 2008, pp.694-702, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2007.10.114

S. Fauzia, H. Aziz, D. Dahlan, and R. Zein, “ Study of equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamics for removal of Pb (II) in aqueous solution using Sago bark (Metroxylon sago)”, In AIP Conference Proceedings, Vol. 2023, No. 1, 2018, p. 020081, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5064078




How to Cite

Dawood, D. S., Alwared, A. I., Alkhazraji, S. S., & Abdul-Majeed, W. S. (2024). Optimization of Pb (II) Ion Removal from Synthetic Wastewater Using Dead (Chlorophyta) Macroalgae: Prediction by RSM Method. Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, 25(1), 129-140. https://doi.org/10.31699/IJCPE.2024.1.13

Publication Dates







Published Online First