Prepared 13X Zeolite as a Promising Adsorbent for the Removal of Brilliant Blue Dye from Wastewater


  • Suondos K. A. Barno Presidency of the University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq
  • Haider J. Mohamed Chemical and Petrochemical Center, Industrial Research and Development Authority, Ministry of Industry and Minerals, Iraq
  • Siham M. Saeed Chemical and Petrochemical Center, Industrial Research and Development Authority, Ministry of Industry and Minerals, Iraq
  • Mohammed J. Al-Ani Chemical and Petrochemical Center, Industrial Research and Development Authority, Ministry of Industry and Minerals, Iraq
  • Ammar S. Abbas Chemical Engineering Department, College of Engineering, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq



13X zeolite, adsorbent, brilliant blue, adsorption, wastewater


The research discussed the possibility of adsorption of Brilliant Blue Dye (BBD) from wastewater using 13X zeolite adsorbent, which is considered a byproduct of the production process of potassium carbonate from Iraqi potash raw materials. The 13X zeolite adsorbent was prepared and characterized by X-ray diffraction that showed a clear match with the standard 13X zeolite. The crystallinity rate was 82.15% and the crystal zeolite size was 5.29 nm. The surface area and pore volume of the obtained 13X zeolite were estimated. The prepared 13X zeolite showed the ability to remove BBD contaminant from wastewater at concentrations 5 to 50 ppm and the removal reached 96.60% at the lower pollutant concentration. Adsorption measurements versus time showed 48.18% removal of the dye during just the first half-hour and the maximum removal closest to the removal at the equilibrium after one and half hour. Langmuir isotherm was described the adsorption equilibrium data with a maximum adsorption capacity of 93.46 mg/g and the kinetics data of the adsorption process was followed the pseudo-second-order.


M. F. Ali, B. M. El Ali, and J. G. Speight, Handbook of Industrial Chemistry: Organic Chemicals. New York, United States of America: McGraw-Hill Education; 1st edition, 2005.

European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), “Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of Brilliant Blue FCF (E 133) as a food additive,” EFSA J., vol. 8, no. 11, pp. 1–36, 2010, doi: 10.2903/j.efsa.2010.1853.

R.W. Sabnis, Handbook of Biological Dyes and Stains Synthesis and Industrial Applications. Hoboken, New Jersey: A John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2010.

L. G. B. Ferreira, R. X. Faria, N. C. D. S. Ferreira, and R. J. Soares-Bezerra, “Brilliant Blue Dyes in Daily Food: How Could Purinergic System Be Affected?,” International Journal of Food Science, vol. 2016. Hindawi Limited, 2016, doi: 10.1155/2016/7548498.

A. P. Trzcinski, Advanced Biological, Physical, and Chemical Treatment of Waste Activated Sludge, 1st editio. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, 2019.

P. Le Cloirec, “Adsorption in Water and Wastewater Treatments,” in Handbook of Porous Solids, vol. 58, no. 1, Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH, 1976, pp. 2746–2803.

A. Bonilla-Petriciolet, D. I. Mendoza-Castillo, and H. E. Reynel-Ávila, Eds., Adsorption processes for water treatment and purification. Springer International Publishing, 2017.

A. Bhatnagar, Ed., Application of Adsorbents for Water Pollution Control. Bentham Science Publishers, 2012.

D. Suteu and D. Bilba, “Suteu and Bilba Brilliant Red HE-3B Adsorption Equilibrium and Kinetic Study of Reactive Dye Brilliant Red HE-3B Adsorption by Activated Charcoal,” Acta Chim. Slov, vol. 52, pp. 73–79, 2005.

H. A. Shanshool, “Adsorption of Methylene Blue on Prepared Charcoal from Molasses Waste,” J. Eng., vol. 25, no. 9, pp. 92–104, 2019, doi: 10.31026/j.eng.2019.9.8.

S. K. A. Barno and A. S. Abbas, “Reduction of Organics in Dairy Wastewater by Adsorption on a Prepared Charcoal from Iraqi Sugarcane,” IOP Conf. Ser. Mater. Sci. Eng., vol. 736, no. 2, 2020, doi: 10.1088/1757-899X/736/2/022096.

S. M. Yakout, M. R. Hassan, A. A. Abdeltawab, and M. I. Aly, “Sono-sorption efficiencies and equilibrium removal of triphenylmethane (crystal violet) dye from aqueous solution by activated charcoal,” J. Clean. Prod., vol. 234, pp. 124–131, Oct. 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.06.164.

A. S. Abbas and T. Darweesh, “Preparation and Characterization of Activated Carbon for Adsorption of,” J. Eng., vol. 22, no. 8, pp. 140–157, 2016.

S. H. Tang and M. A. Ahmad Zaini, “Development of activated carbon pellets using a facile low-cost binder for effective malachite green dye removal,” J. Clean. Prod., vol. 253, p. 119970, Apr. 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.119970.

M. A. Ahmad, M. A. Eusoff, P. O. Oladoye, K. A. Adegoke, and O. S. Bello, “Statistical optimization of Remazol Brilliant Blue R dye adsorption onto activated carbon prepared from pomegranate fruit peel,” Chem. Data Collect., vol. 28, p. 100426, Aug. 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.cdc.2020.100426.

A. H. Jawad, N. N. Mohd Firdaus Hum, A. S. Abdulhameed, and M. A. Mohd Ishak, “Mesoporous activated carbon from grass waste via H3PO4-activation for methylene blue dye removal: modelling, optimisation, and mechanism study,” Int. J. Environ. Anal. Chem., 2020, doi: 10.1080/03067319.2020.1807529.

A. S. Abbas and S. A. Hussien, “Equilibrium , Kinetic and Thermodynamic Study of Aniline Adsorption over Prepared ZSM-5 Zeolite,” Iraqi J. Chem. Pet. Eng., vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 47–56, 2017.

M. Tanyol, N. Kavak, and G. Torlut, “Synthesis of poly(An-co-vp)/zeolite composite and its application for the removal of brilliant green by adsorption process: Kinetics, isotherms, and experimental design,” Adv. Polym. Technol., vol. 2019, 2019, doi: 10.1155/2019/8482975.

H. Mittal, R. Babu, A. A. Dabbawala, S. Stephen, and S. M. Alhassan, “Zeolite-Y incorporated karaya gum hydrogel composites for highly effective removal of cationic dyes,” Colloids Surfaces A Physicochem. Eng. Asp., vol. 586, p. 124161, Feb. 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.colsurfa.2019.124161.

Y. Li, Y. Liu, H. Tang, and S. Dong, “Oxidized Cross-Linked Guar Gum with Hydrophobic Groups: Structure, Properties and Removal of Reactive Blue-XBR in Simulated Water,” Arab. J. Sci. Eng., vol. 43, no. 7, pp. 3621–3629, Jul. 2018, doi: 10.1007/s13369-018-3146-x.

R. K. Abid and A. S. Abbas, “Adsorption of organic pollutants from real refinery wastewater on prepared cross-linked starch by epichlorohydrin,” Data Br., vol. 19, pp. 1318–1326, 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.dib.2018.05.060.

F. K. Al-Jubory, I. M. Mujtaba, and A. S. Abbas, “Preparation and Characterization of Biodegradable Crosslinked Starch Ester as Adsorbent,” in 2nd International Conference on Materials Engineering & Science (IConMEAS 2019), 2020, pp. 20165–20169, doi:

J. Arayaphan, P. Maijan, P. Boonsuk, and S. Chantarak, “Synthesis of photodegradable cassava starch-based double network hydrogel with high mechanical stability for effective removal of methylene blue,” Int. J. Biol. Macromol., Nov. 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.11.166.

S. Lawchoochaisakul, P. Monvisade, and P. Siriphannon, “Cationic starch intercalated montmorillonite nanocomposites as natural based adsorbent for dye removal,” Carbohydr. Polym., vol. 253, p. 117230, Feb. 2021, doi: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2020.117230.

B. A. Alshahidy and A. S. Abbas, “Preparation and modification of 13X zeolite as a heterogeneous catalyst for esterification of oleic acid,” in AIP Conference Proceedings, Mar. 2020, vol. 2213, no. 1, p. 020167, doi: 10.1063/5.0000171.

F. W. Clarke and B. Irving Langmuir, “Constitution of Solids and Liquids,” J. Am. Chem. Soc., vol. 38, no. 11, pp. 2221–2295, 1916, doi: 10.1021/ja02268a002.

H.M.F. Freundlich, “Over the adsorption in solution,” J. Phys. Chem., vol. 57, pp. 385–471, 1906.

K. L. Tan and B. H. Hameed, “Insight into the adsorption kinetics models for the removal of contaminants from aqueous solutions,” J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. Eng., vol. 74, pp. 25–48, 2017, doi: 10.1016/j.jtice.2017.01.024.

S. Lagergren, “Zur theorie der sogenannten adsorption geloster stoffe,” K. Sven. Vetenskapsakademiens. Handl., vol. 24, pp. 1–39, 1898.

Y. . Ho and G. McKay, “Pseudo-second order model for sorption processes,” Process Biochem., vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 451–465, Jul. 1999, doi: 10.1016/S0032-9592(98)00112-5.




How to Cite

Barno, S. K. A., Mohamed, H. J., Saeed, S. M., Al-Ani, M. J., & Abbas, A. S. (2021). Prepared 13X Zeolite as a Promising Adsorbent for the Removal of Brilliant Blue Dye from Wastewater. Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, 22(2), 1–6.

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>